What does the bearded reporter say to Paul’s belief that people around the world would act when they see the footage of the murders? Power, Bystanders to Genocide, Atlantic Monthly, September 2001. The man who was President of the U.S. at the time, Bill Clinton, has stated that allowing the Rwandan genocide to continue was a major policy failure. Was his description accurate? No. “A three-year-old child who had just seen his siblings killed, pleaded with the attackers to spare his life: ‘Please don’t kill me. Human Rights Watch describes her heroism: . They’re not gonna stop the slaughter.” What did Captain Oliver mean by saying to the hotel manager that he was not even a “nigger”? Give some of the code words broadcast over the radio at the start of the genocide. 27. The genocidaires have been treated well in the prison run by the International Criminal Tribunal. From the 1960s onward, there were episodes in which Tutsis massacred Hutus, and Hutus massacred Tutsis in both Rwanda and neighboring Burundi, which has a similar class/caste system. Thread starter apologize; Start date Sep 26, 2016 Sep 26, 2016 catastrophic human rights violations within nation-states? President Clinton, in justifying this intervention, cited the failures of Rwanda and the desire of the U.S. not to make the same mistake twice. There was no important interest that affected the people of the U.S. or its government regarding Rwanda, such as oil or other natural resources. It is possible but difficult a shown by the struggles of Taiwan, Korea, Iraq, Argentina, Chile, Russia, and the former communist countries of eastern Europe. You’re not even a nigger, you’re African. President Habyarimana had lost control of the Hutu extremists, whose plans were being finalized under the leadership of Rwandan Army Colonel Theodore Bagosora. Augustin is a Hutu who had married a Tutsi. It has to be very hard. “Sometimes in April“: Age: 14+; MPAA Rating: TV-MA (suitable for mature audiences or adults only); Drama; 2005; 140 minutes; Color. Rusesabagina & Zoellner, An Ordinary Man, p. xiv. The first is that the wrongdoer restore any ill-gotten gains and, to the full extent of his power, make amends. “Is it Tutsi and Hutu or Tutu and Hutsi?” questioned a member of Lt General Wesley Clarke’s staff after Habyarimana’s plane crashed. Nerad to delam, ale nemuzu IMHO jinak viz muj komentar k posledne zminenemu snimku. According to the Rwandan journalist in the movie, what are the differences between the Hutus and the Tutsis? Power, A Problem from Hell pp. Most genocides have been explained to the public as being preemptive and defensive. You would need days and days. 3. The Belgians used the Tutsis to run the country. His book Shake Hands with the Devil won the prestigious Canadian Governor General’s Literary Award in 2004 and was a best seller in Canada for a short time. It was possible to change one’s classification by intermarriage or “social climbing.” In effect, the difference between Hutu and Tutsi was one of caste/class rather than ethnicity. Captain Diagne, a devout Muslim, is thought to have rescued hundreds of people. The Tutsi, who looked more European to the colonizers, were seen as natural aristocrats and were favored in government and society. (For a description of these events, see From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect, a speech by Mr. Evans to the Symposium on Humanitarian Intervention, University of Wisconsin, Madison, March 31, 2006.) 50% (28.7.2008) Stripping the humanity from an entire group takes time. It shows that he is a good parent and is going to take care of the people around him. Sometimes in April, Raoul Peck, 2005, 140 minutter; Shooting Dogs, Michale Caton-Jones, 2005, 115 minutter; En dansker i helvede, Jørn Stjerneklar, 2009, 58 minutter; Kinyarwanda, Edouard Bamporiki, 2011, 100 minutter; Her vil der primært blive arbejdet med de to spillefilm Hotel Rwanda og Sometimes in April. In addition, the film describes the situation of three fictional survivors. Possible Problems Social-Emotional Learning Teachers can modify the movie worksheets to fit the needs of each class. It is a normal human reaction. The international tribunal focuses the world’s attention on the problem of genocide. “Hate radio” RTLM helped set the stage for genocide by referring repeatedly to the Tutsi as “cockroaches”, vermin, and less than human. This usually means that the spouse cannot work, a factor which further impoverishes the family of the prisoner. There were many innocent people among the two million, including children and others who didn’t participate in the genocide. So the king put Gatutsi in charge of all. By August 1994, Dallaire had a death wish. (Applying R2P to the Kosovo crisis in 1999, the Serb dominated Yugoslav government was persecuting its Muslim ethnic Albanian citizens. If the common people of Rwanda who had been enlisted to perpetrate the genocide had said “no” (as some did, but not enough). (At present the world is struggling with a genocide in Darfur.). (This happened with director Terry George's moving film about IRA prisoners in the late 1970s, Some Mother's Son; it was considered not commercial enough to warrant a promotion budget.) In 2003, in an interview, President Kagame stated that: Genocide is central to the history of Rwanda and Rwandans because it is an expression of what went so badly wrong in our history. “Sometimes in April” shows the three survivors trying to deal with the effects of the genocide. Both movies can serve as a springboard to discussions on the legacy of colonialism and the challenges facing emerging countries in Africa. In A Problem from Hell — America and the age of Genocide, Samantha Power describes Dallaire’s revelations and mental state in the aftermath of his deployment: If the leaders of society such as the politicians, the clergy, the business people, or the army, had calmed things down, there would have been no genocide. As the story begins, Honore is on trial before the International War Crimes Tribunal for inciting people to commit genocide. Haunted by memories of the gruesome deaths of countless innocent civilians, Dallaire was diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) about two years after the genocide. Ibid. However, there is no gratuitous violence, and care has been taken to avoid making the images too graphic. There were many risks to intervention. Dallaire was acutely aware of the importance of the media. It appears that Honore came to understand that he had participated in a crime of monstrous proportions. Dallaire, Shake Hands With the Devil p. 431. Later he tried to protect anyone who was able to make it to the Hotel Mille Collines. . Please select one or more of the below options. The word Hutu originally meant “servant” or “subject” and the word Tutsi meant “rich in cattle.” In general, but with many exceptions, the Tutsi were taller and had sharper features. How do you face down a killer? In the movie, a genocidaire offered to let the hotel manager have a few Tutsis of his own in exchange for turning over the rest of his neighbors and friends. Film Study Worksheet for a Work of Historical Fiction, Film Study Worksheet for ELA Classes; and. He reported that the “number of mass killings has fallen 80% since the late 1980s …. Paper instructions:Watch the movies Hotel Rwanda and Sometimes in April and discuss the differences between both and how has each allowed you a deeper understanding of the other.??. Jean-Pierre had also talked about plans to trap and kill Belgian peacekeepers to force the U.N. to withdraw. SERIOUS: Both films show the murders of many people. The killers were often spattered with the blood of their victims. Moral-Ethical Emphasis, Assignments and Projects His story is placed firmly in context so that we understand something of the uprising, the Hutu hatred of Tutsis ('rebel cockroaches'), the urgings of hate radio, the slowness of the world to respond.Don Cheadle (who can do comedy as well as con-man gangsters so well) is utterly persuasive as Paul. Additional questions are set out below. Some of the genocidaires may have thought that they were doing their patriotic duty and protecting themselves by killing their neighbors. Hotel Rwanda will be shown today Monday December 3, 2012 at exactly 8pm and repeated on Tuesday afternoon December 4 whiles Sometimes in April shows on … Individuals like Phillipe Gaillard of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the U.N. Force Commandeer commander LT General Roméo Dallaire went to heroic lengths to save Rwandans. It is generally recognized that there are certain preconditions to forgiveness. 355 – 56. They both knew many in the elite of their country’s power structure. ‘I was trying to get myself destroyed and looking to get released from the guilt. While lacking the flair of Hotel Rwanda, `Sometimes' makes up for flash with brutal reality of the atrocities committed in 1994. From April to July 1994, some 927,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu were shot or hacked to death. I chose the HBO Film Sometimes in April. It did not happen all at once. I knew they were going door-to-door.” She explained to her colleagues at the State Department that “three kinds of killing were going on: casualties in war, politically motivated murder (moderate and opposition Hutu) and genocide.” Power, Bystanders to Genocide, Atlantic Monthly, September 2001. . See Witness To Evil: Roméo Dallaire and Rwanda for many film and audio clips of General Dallaire and of Rwanda at the time. What was it? I hate you.” They are a chilling reminder of the role played by hate radio, RTLM in the genocide. Honore and all of the genocidaires need to be punished. 28. In an April, 2006 article in the L.A. Times several Iraqis were reported as having voiced the wish that a “benevolent strongman” — anyone short of Sadam Hussein — would seize power and restore order. Both the citizen who killed his Tutsi neighbor with a machete and the government leader who convinced his people to do the killing but did not himself kill anyone are criminals. “Sometimes in April” paints a more complete picture of the genocide, showing the horror of the hundred days and the difficulty of recovery. 2. He justified his conduct by saying “I do not have the power to change this situation.” Did he act correctly? An example is the successful NATO intervention in Kosovo spearheaded by the U.S. President Clinton pushed the Kosovo intervention through despite doubts from many in the U.S. military that it could be successfully accomplished. (In the case of Rwanda, the extremist Hutu government and its sympathizers probably began planning the 1994 genocide years before it occurred.) Many genocidaires were embedded in the stream of refugees. We see the horrible killings through the teacher's memories although he still does not know the actual fate of his family. Does it limit the outcome? His daughter was a student in Martine’s class. The condemnation heaped on the U.S., Belgium, France, and the U.N. for failing to intervene to stop the killing in Rwanda showed that respect for national sovereignty would no longer excuse the failure to protect a people from genocide sponsored by the government in power. I thought death would bring me peace. They may be the only ones. In the hospital room Bill finally came to resolution. Why does Augustin have difficulty taking off his wedding ring? “Any time you mentioned peacekeeping in Africa” said one U.S. official, ” the crucifixes and garlic would come up on every door.” Power, Bystanders to Genocide Atlantic Monthly, September 2001. They are allowed to pray. On the side of intervention was the need to protect human life; hundreds of thousands of lives as it turned out. In the United States there have been times when, in the interest of patriotism, the rights of citizens have been abused. 13. I would have been a prisoner of my own conscience.” He went on to say that had he left a refugee in the hotel he would not have been able to enjoy the simple pleasures of life such as being with his wife and children or enjoying a good meal. Although the deaths of the 12 million victims of the Nazis (Jews and non-Jews alike) were horrendous and cruel, the public was insulated from it. This bred the resentment that later helped fuel the genocide. Melvern, A People Betrayed, p. 222, In his April, 2006 lecture in Los Angeles Paul Rusesabagina said, “In Rwanda when you offer someone drink or food and you sit next to him and look him in the eye and ask him for something, it is impossible for him to refuse.”. By focusing on the daring of Mr. Rusesabagina and the survival of the refugees at the Mille Collines, “Hotel Rwanda” provides a cushioned introduction to the horrifying subject of the Rwandan genocide. This had the undesired effect of bolstering the Hutu extremists, who wound up as de facto leaders of the refugees. And around the world, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of civil conflicts resolved – as in Indonesia’s separatist Aceh province [in 2004] – not by force but by negotiation.” He gave primary credit to “the huge increase in international efforts to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts.” Mr. Evans noted that descriptions of the extensive international diplomatic efforts necessary for these successes are usually not reported on the evening news but they are nonetheless important. 11. Would you do it differently now? Hotel Rwanda focuses on the heroism of one man, and while his heroism is important, the story of the Rwandan genocide is about some 927,000 people being murdered by their countrymen, friends, and neighbors. It also shows proceedings at the International Criminal Tribunal in Arusha at which the leaders of the Rwandan genocide are being tried for crimes against humanity. “American officials, for a variety of reasons, shunned the use of what became known as ‘the g-word.’ They felt that using it would have obliged the United States to act, under the terms of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. The parents of these people had been told over and over again that they were uglier and stupider than the Tutsis. TWM offers the following movie worksheets to keep students’ minds on the film and to focus their attention on the lessons to be learned from the movie. A good answer will discuss the conflict felt by Mr. Rusesabagina between his duties to his family and to the refugees at the hotel. In an article published in the Los Angeles Times, The Dogs That Never Barked, Mr. Evans cited many successes of international peacekeeping as of 2005. The Peace Accords are not to blame for the genocide. Each was given a pot of milk. Step by step, it grew more radical until it denied the Tutsis’ humanity and urged the Hutu populace to kill every Tutsi, including friends and relatives. Friend would be required to kill friend. Don Cheadle in Hotel Rwanda. Hundreds of thousands more could have been saved had the U.N. sent the troops Dallaire requested. Dr. Lemkin was one of the few people in his extended family to escape the Nazi death machine. In 1990, the exiled Tutsi formed a rebel force, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, or RPF, to invade their homeland and win the right of return. By 1993, the RPF was a real threat to the Hutu-dominated Rwandan government. Please support our journalism by donating to ICN today. When the Belgians left Rwanda, power was left to the Hutus who were the majority. At the beginning of the film, the character of the hotel manager comes home and the children at his house are playing a game. They used the genocide to secure their positions and deflect the people from their failures as leaders. It would be an acknowledgment that his wife was permanently gone and that his relationship with her was severed. Absolutely no movie. Don Cheadle, adding his voice to the calls for decisive action to stop the genocide in Darfur, said: “I don’t want to make “Hotel Darfur.”. Both movies stay very close to the truth. There is another aspect of forgiveness that is important: the benefit to those who forgive. Please discuss your feelings and actions at the time, the way you felt afterwards, and your perspective on the incident now after viewing and discussing the film and supporting material. Around 800,000 people were killed in Rwanda between April and June 1994. First there are the killers themselves, the people who pulled the triggers and swung the machetes. The RPF crammed 100,000 accused genocidaires into inadequate prisons. Blog. Yes, better late than never. The ideologues of the genocide were not unemployed young men from [the slums of Kigali] but highly intelligent people who had studied at the best universities in Europe or the United States.”. Farm implements were used to kill. Nov. 11, 2020. Gareth Evans was Foreign Minister of Australia from 1988 to 1996 and is presently (as of 2006) President and Chief Executive of the International Crisis Group. You’re worthless.” He goes on to say, “You’re the smartest man here. She still refused and was shot and thrown naked with the others into the common grave. He wanted to remind the official that he knew that the U.S. had no strategic interests in Rwanda and therefore no reason to risk its troops and prestige in an intervention to stop the genocide. Did you intervene? International law develops through experience and by following the practice of governments. Some Tutsis paid the Interahamwe to shoot them instead of hacking them to death. The audience experiences the action through complete sympathy with him. An example is the excesses of the McCarthyite era or when Japanese Americans were interned during the Second World War. It was seen as a failure to recognize long-term, important goals in favor of short-term, relatively minor goals. If the international community had sent about 5,000 troops with equipment and a mandate, the killing would have stopped. ICN aims to provide speedy and accurate news coverage of all subjects of interest to Catholics and the wider Christian community. 33. The Rwandan genocide was person to person. The responses ranged from “too difficult technically” to “too expensive” to “we can’t interfere with free speech, especially in another country.” However, the International War Crimes Tribunal has ruled that RTLM managers and announcers were guilty of crimes against humanity. These programs removed about half of the prisoners from Rwanda’s overcrowded jails. It is also undoubtedly true that peer pressure was involved. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil, p. 332. Sophie Okeinedo is his wife. 31. The civil war brought the Tutsi to power again. The lyrics to the song are: “I hate you. Learn more about Mailchimp's privacy practices here. RPF general Paul Kagame served as the unelected president of Rwanda from 2000 to 2003. . European colonial powers held sway over large populations with a small number of troops through technological superiority and the strategy of “divide and rule”. If the national government failed to protect its citizens, the international community had the R2P. This provided him with an excuse to move around Kigali. The killers would then return and severe another limb. Dallaire was the first high-ranking military officer to go public with PTSD. In 1999, even though Russia’s veto prevented the U.N. Security Council from authorizing the use of force, the United States spearheaded a NATO intervention in Kosovo to prevent ethnic cleansing and genocide of the Muslim ethnic Albanian population. In some places they had accumulated to the point that we were actually walking on a bridge of dead bodies. They used their charm to delay and deflect killers from their victims. Hotel Rwanda will be shown today Monday December 3, 2012 at exactly 8pm and repeated on Tuesday afternoon December 4 whiles Sometimes in April shows on Wednesday December 5 at 8pm and repeated on Thursday afternoon December 6, 2012. The Belgians did the same on a smaller scale in Rwanda by preferring Tutsi to Hutu. She refused to abandon the others. Hotel Rwanda, a 2004 film dealing with the genocide that centers on the Hôtel des Mille Collines, a location also seen in Sometimes in April. In August of that year, Kagame was elected president with an incredible 95% of the vote. Are cultures and races of people analogous to species of animals? V neprospech tohoto lacine vypadajiciho, necitlive a nechytlave natoceneho televizniho dramatu o tragickych udalostech roku 1994 v Rwande mluvi mnou drive videny a od prvniho do posledniho zaberu adorovany Hotel Rwanda. The New Africa: Dispatches from a Changing Continent by Robert M. Press; photographs by Betty Press. They determined that, “The hypothetical force described by General Dallaire–at least 5,000 strong, depending on the method of employment, and armed with the equipment and capabilities to employ and sustain a brigade in combat–could have made a significant difference in Rwanda in 1994…. He charms people. Recall an incident when you witnessed cruelty (physical, social, or emotional ) to another person, group of people, or an animal. When a national government embarks on a campaign of genocide or human rights violations, or when it is unwilling to protect the human rights of its people, the concept of national sovereignty has historically restricted international intervention. Honore did not want to die burdened with his guilt. The communists in Cuba who persecute people for being counter-revolutionary believe that they are being patriotic. It plays a central role. The true horror of Rwanda is a bit glossed over in the film 124 & 125. It caused a disaster for everyone. Power,The Problem From Hell, page 352. The primary practical response was to reduce UNAMIR to less than 500 troops, not to increase the force levels so that it could effectively intervene. For example, Rwanda has no important natural resources. Discussion Questions Relating to Ethical Issues will facilitate the use of this film to teach ethical principles and critical viewing. Rwandan courts started trying people suspected of planning the genocide in 1996. I was wrong. (In contrast, Gandhi’s non-violent movement for independence in India raised the level of world-wide political ethics. There is no one right answer to this question. The Belgians pursued this strategy in Rwanda and the English ruled through division in some of their colonies. But this question relates to the personal relationship between the two brothers: should Augustin condemn his brother and renounce all brotherly love? Along with Raoul Peck's quite similar, Sometimes in April, it offers an opportunity for a world audience to learn something about the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and learn lessons about compassion and the need for political will for help and intervention.Shot principally in Rwanda, the film has an authentic look and feel, some of it with documentary vividness. , power was left to the Kosovo intervention and many good people who pulled the and... 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