Its transport fleet has 51 vessels: 20 tankers, 13 ferries, 15 universal dry cargo vessels, 2 Ro-Ro vessels, as well as 1 technical vessel and 1 floating workshop. The border between the northern and middle part runs along the edge of the North Caspian shelf (the Mangyshlak threshold), between Chechen Island and Cape Tiub-Karagan at Fort Shevchenko. Total recoverable reserves were more than 500 million tons. The Caspian is divided into three distinct physical regions: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Caspian. The sea’s name derives from the ancient Kaspi peoples, who once lived in Transcaucasia to the west. (2009). Since the medieval period, traders reached the Caspian via a number of portages that connected the Volga and its tributaries with the Don River (which flows into the Sea of Azov) and various rivers that flow into the Baltic Sea. [74] Saudi Arabia, Russia Reach Compromise on Further Output Cuts. Its specialized fleet has 210 vessels: 20 cranes, 25 towing and supplying vehicles, 26 passenger, two pipe-laying, six fire-fighting, seven engineering-geological, two diving and 88 auxiliary vessels. In 1994, the "Contract of the Century" was signed, heralding extra-regional development of the Baku oil fields. TEHRAN – Managing Director of Khazar Shipping Company said Astara Port, located by the Caspian Sea, has become a new hub for container shipping in the region … The Caspian Sea is the world's largest salt lake. Written accounts from the ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean, probably because of its saltiness and large size. Upgrading the Volga–Don Canal would be another option. This activity has a rich history. "Fishes of the Caspian Sea: zoogeography and updated check-list". claim that a medieval rising of the Caspian, perhaps caused by the Amu Darya changing its inflow to the Caspian from the 13th century to the 16th century, caused the coastal towns of Khazaria, such as Atil, to flood. Scholars at the University of Economics of Azerbaijan have recently calculated the cost of Armenia's military material loss in the wake of the latest war in Azerbaijan's internationally recognized ... Lokomotiv Moskva: Last Hope Of Caspian Football At European Tournaments. It is bounded by Kazakhstan from mid-north to mid-east, Russia from mid-north to mid-west, Azerbaijan to the southwest, Iran to the south and adjacent corners, and Turkmenistan along southern parts of its eastern coast. Adjacent to the North Caspian is the Caspian Depression, a low-lying region 27 metres (89 ft) below sea level. The Caspian Sea’ws unique fish resources and oil and gas fields are projected to provide a significant source of food and economic prosperity to the Caspian region, as well as energy to many parts of the world. [citation needed], The last short-term sea-level cycle started with a sea-level fall of 3 m (10 ft) from 1929 to 1977, followed by a rise of 3 m (10 ft) from 1977 until 1995. Russia and Turkmenistan have agreed to strengthen regional transportation and logistics capabilities via the body of water that separates their borders, the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea Region and Energy Resources By Gelb, Bernard A., Twyman, Terry Rayno To get The Caspian Sea Region and Energy Resources eBook, make sure you click the link listed below and save the ebook or have accessibility to other information which are highly relevant to THE CASPIAN SEA REGION AND ENERGY RESOURCES book. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, peaceful nuclear construction experiments, Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea, "Welcome to the Caspian Sea Level Project Site", "Caviar pool drains dry as Caspian Sea slides towards catastrophe", "Культурно-исторический контекст археологического комплекса Гобустан", "Azerbaijan: Land of Fire and Flood – Ancient Mariners and a Deluged Landscape – Rock Art Evidence of a Marine Inflow", "The Ice Age Rise and Fall of the Ponto Caspian: Ancient Mariners and the Asiatic Mediterranean", "Gobustan Petroglyphs – Methods & Chronology", Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran, "Cosmas Indicopleustes, Christian Topography, §132", "The Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Azerbaijan, "Back to the Future: Britain, Baku Oil and the Cycle of History, "Caspian Sea Map, Caspian Sea Location Facts History, Major Bodies of Water", "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", "Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects", "LUKOIL starts up V. Filanovsky in the Caspian Sea", "Volume of oil tanker transportation in Caspian Sea to increase", Russia Tries to Scuttle Proposed Trans-Caspian Pipeline, "WikiLeaks cables: BP suffered blowout on Azerbaijan gas platform", "WikiLeaks Reveals BP's 'Other' Offshore Drilling Disaster", https://gsaz.az/en/articles/view/105/Characteristics-of-Caspian-Sea, http://www.azadliq.org/contentinfographics/%C4%B1nfographics/26613064.html, https://www.isna.ir/news/97052211612/%D8%B3%D9%87%D9%85-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%82%D8%B9%DB%8C-%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A7%D8%B2-%D8%AE%D8%B2%D8%B1-%DA%86%D9%82%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA, https://www.livescience.com/57999-caspian-sea-facts.html, "8.3 The Status of the Caspian Sea – Dividing Natural Resources Between Five Countries", "Five states sign convention on legal status of Caspian Sea", "Caspian Sea states to host sea-related investment forum every two years", "Are the Littoral States Close to Signing an Agreement on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea? [43], During the rule of Peter I the Great, Fedor I. Soimonov was a pioneering explorer of the sea. These lead to horizontal differences in temperature, salinity, and ecology. The Caspian has several small islands; they are primarily located in the north and have a collective land area of roughly 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi). It lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. Many rare and endemic plant species of Russia are associated with the tidal areas of the Volga delta and riparian forests of the Samur River delta. The lake proper has 115 natives, including 73 endemics (63.5%). Thus the Caspian ecosystem is a closed basin, with its own sea level history that is independent of the eustatic level of the world's oceans. The Caspian was once part of the Tethys Ocean, but became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to plate tectonics. Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan have bilateral agreements with each other based on median lines. In 2019, the trade turnover between the two countries amounted to nearly $700 million, with the Astrakhan region and Turkmenistan trading goods worth about $5.6 million. Rapidly the republic's oil industry came under the control of the Soviet Union. The Caspian Sea region, which includes Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Iran, is one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world and is an increasingly important source of global energy production.The area has significant oil and natural gas reserves from both offshore deposits in the Caspian Sea itself and onshore fields in the region. [citation needed], The Caspian turtle (Mauremys caspica), although found in neighboring areas, is a wholly freshwater species. [71] In advance of a Caspian Summit, 51st Special Working Group took place in Astana in May 2018 and found consensus on multiple agreements: Agreements on cooperation in the field of transport; trade and economic cooperation; prevention of incidents on the sea; combating terrorism; fighting against organized crime; and border security cooperation. [5][6][7], Among Greeks and Persians in classical antiquity it was the Hyrcanian ocean. The world's first offshore wells and machine-drilled wells were made in Bibi-Heybat Bay, near Baku, Azerbaijan. Whether it was in law a sea, lake or an agreed hybrid, set the demarcation rules and was heavily debated. [22] About 62% of the species and subspecies are endemic, as are 4–6 genera (depending on taxonomic treatment). The collapse of the Soviet Union allowed the market opening of the region. It covers, net of an eastern very saline lagoon, 375,000 km². [30] In recent years, overfishing has threatened the sturgeon population to the point that environmentalists advocate banning sturgeon fishing completely until the population recovers. [29] This is supported by the existences of current endemic, oceanic species such as lagoon cockles which was genetically identified to originate in Caspian/Black Seas regions. [67], The Caspian Summit is a head of state-level meeting of the five littoral states. [2] Strabo (died about 24 AD) wrote that "to the country of the Albanians (Caucasus Albania not to be confused with the country of Albania) belongs also the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now disappeared". Thus, the Caspian Sea is legally neither fully a sea nor a lake. In the North Caspian, the majority of the islands are small and uninhabited, like the Tyuleniy Archipelago, an Important Bird Area (IBA), although some of them have human settlements. The Caspian Sea Region Towards 2025: caspia Inc. National Giants on Trade and Transit? Overfishing has depleted a number of the historic fisheries. Language: Name: Name source: English: Caspian Sea: Wikipedia : PlaceType: Lake : Latitude: 41° 50' 51.5" N (41.84763°) Longitude: 50° 21' 24.5" E (50.3568°) The world energy markets were influenced by Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, as they became strategically crucial in this sphere, thus attracting the largest share of FDI (foreign direct investment). Another Caspian tributary, the Kuma River, is connected by an irrigation canal with the Don basin as well. Iran has high fossil fuel energy potential. Russia officially opposes the project on environmental grounds. [38], Later, in the Tang dynasty, the sea was the western limit of the Chinese Empire. Its vast natural resources, oil and natural gas among them, have attracted widespread international interest since the early 1990s. Renaissance European maps labelled it as Abbacuch Sea (Oronce Fine's 1531 world map), Mar de Bachu (Ortellius' 1570 map), or Mar de Sala (Mercator's 1569 map). Naseka, A.M. and Bogutskaya, N.G. The seabed, on the other hand, remains undefined, subject to bilateral agreements between countries. Caspian Sea - a large saltwater lake between Iran and Russia fed by the Volga River; the largest inland body of water in the world Caspian Iran , Islamic Republic of Iran , Persia - a theocratic Islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia; Iran was the core of the ancient empire that was known as … Neanderthal remains also have been discovered at a cave in Georgia. This is one where the natural resources, here oil and gas, compose more than 10 percent of the country's GDP and 40 percent of exports. This oil is black and is called nefte. [27], The sea's basin (including associated waters such as rivers) has 160 native species and subspecies of fish in more than 60 genera. In 1920, when the Bolsheviks captured Azerbaijan, all private property, including oil wells and factories, was confiscated. The Middle–Southern boundary is the Apsheron Threshold, a sill of tectonic origin between the Eurasian continent and an oceanic remnant,[15] that runs through Zhiloi Island and Cape Kuuli. About 11 plant species are found in the Samur River Delta, including the unique liana forests that date back to the Tertiary period. Thus levels in the Caspian Sea relate to atmospheric conditions in the North Atlantic, thousands of kilometres to the northwest. In addition, a plant has been launched for the construction and maintenance of ships. Its main freshwater inflow, Europe's longest river, the Volga, enters at the shallow north end as its principal inflow. [56] However, analysts note that the pipelines would bypass Russia completely, thereby denying the country valuable transit fees, as well as destroying its current monopoly on westward-bound hydrocarbon exports from the region. In June 2007, in order to boost his oil-rich country's access to markets, Kazakhstan's President Nursultan Nazarbayev proposed a 700-kilometre (435-mile) link between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. The word Caspian is very likely a name for the Caspi, an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia. Shipping was a secondary consideration. The zebra mussel is native to the Caspian and Black Sea basins, but has become an invasive species elsewhere, when introduced. During 1971, some peaceful nuclear construction experiments were carried out in the region by the U.S.S.R. Pollution from the oil industry and, to a lesser extent, dams on rivers draining into it have harmed its ecology. A northern alternate is the Volga-Baltic (a sea which has a connection to the North Sea of the Atlantic, as the White Sea does via the White Sea-Baltic canal. Map is showing the Caspian Sea, an inland sea at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. The first Caspian Economic Forum was convened on August 12, 2019 in Turkmenistan and brought together representatives of Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Iran and that state. [19], A study by the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences estimated that the level of the sea was dropping by more than six centimetres per year due to increased evaporation due to rising temperatures caused by climate change. The principal limiting factors to successful establishment of plant species are hydrological imbalances within the surrounding deltas, water pollution, and various land reclamation activities. [50], The Caspian Sea region presently is a significant, but not major, supplier of crude oil to world markets, based upon estimates by BP Amoco and the U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. It is hoped that the "Eurasia Canal" (Manych Ship Canal) would transform landlocked Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries into maritime states, enabling them to significantly increase trade volume. He was a hydrographer who charted and made much better known the sea such as its measurements. December 6, 2020. The deal officially ended a 22-year-old impasse as all interested countries finally managed to reach a consensus. "The Caspian Sea and the lands around it are emerging again as a focus region in global affairs. It would be reasonable to assume that the Caspian Sea is, well, a sea. The Caspian Sea, like the Black Sea, is a remnant of the ancient Paratethys Sea. 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