41 (Bristol Freighter) Squadron RNZAF, List of war crimes § 1948-1960: Malayan Emergency, Communist insurgency in Malaysia (1968–89), Foreign and Commonwealth Office migrated archives, "Civil-military operations: joint doctrine and the Malayan Emergency", "The Use of the British Village Resettlement Model in Malaya and Vietnam, 4th Triennial Symposium (April 11–13, 2002), The Vietnam Center and Archive, Texas Tech University", "Documentary to Explore the Relationship Between Malaysia and Fiji During the Malayan Emergency", "Archive – Online edition of the newspaper. The momentous events that followed led to the creation of the State of Israel. [4] The British then attempted to starve the communist guerrillas by implementing a food denial campaign which saw the enforcement of food rationing, the killing livestock and aerial spraying of chemical herbicides to destroy rural farmland. its members should be given privileges enjoyed by citizens, a guarantee that political as well as armed members of the MCP would not be punished, Whereas the MNLA never numbered more than about 8,000 insurgents, the. Nov 1, 2020 - Explore coal1989's board "malaya emergency" on Pinterest. [citation needed]. Many Commonwealth personnel who handled and/or used Agent Orange during the conflict suffered from serious exposure to dioxin and Agent Orange. 1 Squadron (Avro Lincoln bombers) and No. Clean water, proper housing, education and medical care were provided. Meanwhile, discussions began in the new Emergency Operations Council to intensify the "People's War" against the guerillas. In 1960 the Emergency was declared to be over. Insurgents had numerous advantages over British forces; they lived in closer proximity to villagers, they sometimes had relatives or close friends in the village, and they were not afraid to threaten violence or torture and murder village leaders as an example to the others, forcing them to assist them with food and information. 75 Squadron English Electric Canberras, as well as supply-dropping operations in support of anti-guerrilla forces, using the Bristol Freighter. These villages were newly constructed in most cases, and were surrounded by barbed wire, police posts, and floodlit areas, designed to keep the inhabitants in and the guerrillas out. The terms of the amnesty were: Following the declaration, an intensive publicity campaign on an unprecedented scale was launched by the government. [6] This heightened inter-ethnic tensions as the Malay people found that ethnic Chinese had replaced them in certain jobs and work became more difficult to find. Many guerrillas surrendered, but these techniques took time to perfect and the insurgents were able to continue their campaign. General Sir Gerald Templer (left) testing a De Lisle carbine, south Perak, 1952. Malayan Emergency (1950) British troops in action in the jungles of Malaya against Communist rebels. On 7 July, two additional companies were assigned to the area; patrolling and harassing fires were intensified. British Pathé. "A small, distant war? This strategy led to the infamous incident at Batang Kali where 24 unarmed villagers were executed by British troops.[42][48]. In 1950, the Cold War significantly heated up, with the outbreak of the Korean War. In June 1948 a state of emergency was declared in the British colony of Malaya (now Malaysia). The Malayan economy relied on the export of tin and rubber, and was therefore vulnerable to any shifts in the world market. It was Templer who is widely credited with turning the situation in favour of the British forces. Bandits Face … In comparison, the MNLA never released any Britons alive. Chinese Edition. This second phase of the insurgency lasted until 1989. The prolonged absence of vegetation caused by defoliation also resulted in major soil erosion to areas of Malaya. Realising that the tide of the war was turning against him, Chin Peng indicated that he would be ready to meet with British officials alongside senior Malayan politicians in 1955. The No. [30], During the four years of Fijian involvement, from 1952 to 1956, some 1,600 Fijian troops served. May passed without contact. To read an account by an officer on secondement to The Royal Malay Regiment, please open the attached document below. As part of Briggs' Plan devised by British General Sir Harold Briggs, 500,000 people (roughly ten percent of Malaya's population) were eventually removed from the land. Author Robert Jackson said that: "During 1956, some 545,000 lb. [14] The MNLA's supply organisation was called "Min Yuen" (Mass Organisation). A total of 1,300 New Zealanders served in the Malayan Emergency between 1948 and 1964, and fifteen lost their lives. British Pathé. During the Malayan conflict, there were instances during operations to find insurgents where British troops detained and tortured villagers who were suspected of aiding the insurgents. While considered necessary, some of the removals involved the destruction of existing settlements which went beyond the justification of military necessity. The newly arrived troops set up positions near villages and then sent out patrols. During this time, the British administration was attempting to repair Malaya's economy—revenue from M… The British Army soon realised that clumsy sweeps by large formations were unproductive. Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer commanded infantry and armoured divisions during the Second World War. The Malayan Emergency saw over 10,000 Gurkhas active on operations over the period 1948 to 1960. Those who remained faced going into exile, or death in the jungle. [7] The battalion was later replaced by 3 RAR, which in turn was replaced by 1 RAR. Besides supplying material, especially food, it was also important to the MNLA as a source of intelligence. Jun 23, 2016 - H Squadron, 5 Royal Tank Regiment, during operations in Sarawak, North Borneo. The authorities were able to prevent the guerrillas from disrupting the economy, overrunning towns or controlling territory. The Scotsman newspaper lauded these tactics as a good practice since "simple-minded peasants are told and come to believe that the communist leaders are invulnerable". The author also notes that a 500 lb. Dec 11, 2017 - Demand for inquiry into alleged 1948 atrocity by UK troops Following the end of Japanese occupation of Malaya during the Second World War, the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army reorganised to form the Malayan People’s Anti-British Army (MPABA). The Malayan Emergency (1948-60) was one of the few successful counter-insurgency operations undertaken by the Western powers during the Cold War. Dialogues with Chin Peng: New Light on the Malayan Communist Party. [59][60][61], After the Malayan conflict ended in 1960, the US used the British precedent in deciding that the use of defoliants was a legally accepted tactic of warfare. Under the Briggs Plan the British created a system of 400 internment camps called "New villages" to imprison over 400,000 civilians in an attempt to separate the MNLA guerrillas from the civilian population. The Permanent Secretary of Defence for Malaya, Sir Robert Grainger Ker Thompson, had served in the Chindits in Burma during World War II. [2], In June 1948 the colonial government declared a state of emergency in British Malaya after the killing of three Europeans during attacks on plantations. Malayan Emergency 1948-1960. It also saw the birth of our current corps units: Queen’s Gurkha Signals, Gurkha Transport Regiment (now Queen’s Own Gurkha Logistic Regiment) and Queen’s Gurkha Engineers. The MNLA guerrillas were driven deeper into the jungle and denied resources. Sir Gerald Templer’s battle dress blouse, 1950s, Pistol used by General Sir Gerald Templer in Malaya, 1950s, Troops negotiating a jungle waterway, 1959. [43][44][45][46] The massacre later became the focus of decades of legal battles between the UK government and the families of the civilians executed by British troops. See more ideas about malayan emergency, malaysian, emergency. It had a network of contacts within the general population. However, with the exception of the Orang Asli aboriginals, the MNLA failed to gain any major following from any ethnic groups other than the Malayan-Chinese due to the association of communism with China and to long-standing racial tensions within Malaya. Members who agreed to disband were offered economic incentives. The MNLA was organised into regiments, although these had no fixed establishments and each included all communist forces operating in a particular region. The 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (Agent Orange) were used to clear lines of communication and wipe out food crops as part of this strategy and in 1952, trioxone, and mixtures of the aforementioned herbicides, were sent along a number of key roads. With the independence of Malaya under Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman on 31 August 1957, the insurrection lost its rationale as a war of colonial liberation. [38] Despite the failure of the talks, the MCP made every effort to resume peace talks with the Malayan government, without success. However, Colonial Secretary Oliver Lyttelton (after confirmation from Gerald Templer) confirmed to parliament that the photos were indeed genuine. This was the nature of operations: 60,000 artillery shells, 30,000 rounds of mortar ammunition, and 2,000 aircraft bombs for 35 terrorists killed or captured. These tactics strained relations between civilians and British forces in Malaya and were therefore counterproductive in generating the one resource critical in a counterinsurgency, good intelligence. Mar 14, 2019 - Explore Kamarul Ariffin's board "Malayan emergency" on Pinterest. In 1955, the RAAF extended Butterworth air base, from which Canberra bombers of No. Malayan Emergency - I will tell you now of the outstanding memories of those years ’48 to ’52 both happy and sad. [32] The experience was captured in the documentary, Back to Batu Pahat.[33]. With a police force of 40,000 men it was now possible to clear an area of guerrillas. [42][48][50], Over the course of the war some 30,000 mostly ethnic Chinese were deported by the British authorities to mainland China.[51]. He later went on to lead a successful counter-insurgency operation in Malaya. But they were unable to completely stop their activities. The first shots of the Malayan Emergency were fired at 8:30 am on 16 June 1948, in the office of the Elphil Estate twenty miles east of the Sungai Siput town, Perak. Although the emergency was declared over in 1960, communist leader Chin Peng renewed the insurgency against the Malaysian government in 1967. British Troops In Malaya (1949) British troops of Devonshire Regiment posted in Malaya. Churchill took some time considering a replacement for Gurney, eventually appointing General Gerald Templer as the new British High Commissioner in January 1952. Pro-independence fighters of the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military wing of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) fought against the armed forces of the British military and Commonwealth. The Briggs Plan was multifaceted but one aspect has become particularly well known: the forced relocation of some 500,000 rural Malayans, including 400,000 Chinese, from squatter communities on the fringes of the forests into guarded camps called "new villages". [10]. 133. p. 43. The first Australian ground forces, the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR), arrived in 1955. In a collaboration with Australian academics, he met with historians and former Commonwealth military personnel at a series of meetings which led to the publication of Dialogues with Chin Peng: New Light on the Malayan Communist Party. Although it was referred to as "The Emergency" by colonial authorities, the MNLA referred to it as the "Anti-British National Liberation War". Another month passed before it was learned that the terrorists were making a contact inside the swamp. [citation needed] In fact, the CPM had members from the Malay, Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) and Indian communities, although these were always in a minority. In another collective punishment – at Sengei Pelek the following month – measures included a house curfew, a reduction of 40 percent in the rice ration and the construction of a chain-link fence 22 yards outside the existing barbed wire fence around the town. [40] 2,478 civilians were killed, with another 810 recorded as missing. Those who show that they are genuinely intent to be loyal to the Government of Malaya and to give up their Communist activities will be helped to regain their normal position in society and be reunited with their families. : Archipelago Press, 2004), page 194, Eric Stahl, "Doomed from the Start: A New Perspective on the Malayan Insurgency" (master's thesis, 2003). The Malayan Emergency 1950 - 1960 The Malayan Army. This led to an increase in poverty for the Malayan people. The MNLA and its supporters called the campaign the Anti-British National Liberation War. Templer also involved the local population in the fight against the guerrillas by increasing the number of Malay battalions and strengthening the Home Guard raised to defend the new villages. For some, National Service was a horrible experience. The MNLA began their war for Malayan independence by targeting the colonial resource extraction industries, namely the tin mines and rubber plantations which were the main sources of income for the British occupation of Malaya. Each of the Malay states had a State War Executive Committee which included the State Chief Minister as chairman, the Chief Police Officer, the senior military commander, state home guard officer, state financial officer, state information officer, executive secretary, and up to six selected community leaders. In 1947 alone, the communists in Malaya organised 300 strikes.[9]. The MCP was represented by Chin Peng, the Secretary-General, Rashid Maidin and Chen Tien, head of the MCP's Central Propaganda Department. Then, on 15 May. [42][48][49] There were also cases of dead guerrillas being exhibited in public for identification, and to potentially entrap grieving associates. Following the failure of the talks, Tunku decided to withdraw the amnesty on 8 February 1956, five months after it had been offered, stating that he would not be willing to meet the Communists again unless they indicated beforehand their desire to see him with a view to making "a complete surrender". Templer placed great emphasis on the need to win the 'hearts and minds' of the population. One platoon established an ambush; one terrorist appeared and was killed. The initial British reaction to the crisis was to introduce emergency legislation, allowing suspects to be detained without trial. See more ideas about malayan emergency, malaysian, emergency. Most MNLA guerrillas were ethnic Chinese, though there were some Malays, Indonesians and Indians among its members. Their aim was to become independent from British rule which had existed in Malaya since the … In August 1957 the Federation of Malaya was granted independence and the insurrection lost its rationale as a war of colonial liberation. He realised the importance of isolating the guerrillas from their sources of food and creating a sense of security in populated areas so that people would be more willing to provide information. 1900s The declassified files reveal that Britain resorted to very brutal measures in the war, including widespread aerial bombing and the use of a … This attack failed as the target's jeep broke down making him late for work. These measures helped unite the racially divided Malayan people against the insurrection. Many guerrillas gave up their fight. The only survivor of the killings was a man named Chong Hong who was in his 20s at the time. [16] The MNLA also stipulated that their soldiers needed official permission for any romantic involvement with civilian women. [7] The weak economy was a factor in the growth of trade union movements led by the communists. Mapping was poor, communications were abysmal, the meteorology was unfavourable and airfields were few. Sergeant R Beaumont of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, attached to the Malay Regiment, instructs a Dyak tracker in the use of modern firearms. The Japanese occupation of Malaya began in 1941 and from that point onwards the "export of primary products was limited to the relatively small amounts required for the Japanese economy. British troops often described the terror of jungle patrols; in addition to watching out for insurgent fighters, they had to navigate difficult terrain and avoid dangerous animals and insects. On 6 October 1951, the British High Commissioner in Malaya, Sir Henry Gurney, was assassinated (see below). "Since a Sunderland could carry a load of 190, its effect on terrorist morale was considerable", Jackson states. Those of you who come in and surrender will not be prosecuted for any offence connected with the Emergency, which you have committed under Communist direction, either before this date or in ignorance of this declaration. More gunmen were sent to kill him but left after failing to find him. [5], Economic tension intensified during the Second World War. Chin, C. (2012). Souchou Yao. It was triggered when the MCP ambushed security forces in Kroh–Betong, in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia, on 17 June 1968. The Malayan Emergency A Small Distant War. These planned attacks were to include a fourth European on an estate near Sungai Siput. Decapitation of suspected insurgents by British forces was also common practice as a way to identify dead guerrillas when it was not possible to bring their corpses in from the jungle. [8], The withdrawal of Japan at the end of World War II left the British Malayan economy disrupted. The first two red pins, signifying kills, appeared on the operations map, and local morale rose a little. From 1954 there were normally 24 infantry battalions in Malaya from a wide variety of Commonwealth countries, including Australia and New Zealand. These were supported by special forces like the Special Air Service (SAS) Regiment. Within the Alliance itself, influential elements in both the MCA and UMNO were endeavouring to persuade the Chief Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, to hold negotiations with the MCP.[37]. The 'Malayan Emergency' was originally the colonial government's term for the conflict. At the same time, British forces kept up pressure on the MNLA by patrolling the jungle. Food parties came out occasionally, but the civil population was too afraid to report them. Welcome to the British Army Review Special Report: The Malayan Emergency. In the early 1950s a revolt in favour of union with Greece began in British-controlled Cyprus. John Coates, Suppressing Insurgency: An Analysis of the Malayan Emergency, 1948-1954 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, … The latter measure prompted the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine to write to the Colonial Office noting that the "chronically undernourished Malayan" might not be able to survive as a result. The Briggs plan also recognised the inhospitable nature of the Malayan jungle. The first to arrive were the 1st Battalion, Fiji Infantry Regiment. There was considerable labour unrest and a large number of strikes occurred between 1946 and 1948. Officials explained that these measures were being imposed upon the 4,000 villagers "for their continually supplying food" to the insurgents and "because they did not give information to the authorities". Between 1963 and 1966, British Commonwealth forces fought against Indonesia in a conflict that focused on the future of Brunei and North Borneo. [11], The MNLA commonly employed guerrilla tactics, sabotaging installations, attacking rubber plantations and destroying transportation and infrastructure. No charges have yet been brought against the British forces involved and the claims have been repeatedly dismissed by the British government as propaganda, despite evidence suggestive of a cover-up. British forces thus faced a dual-threat: the insurgents and the silent network in villages who supported them. Mining was also affected by a shortage of spare parts for machines. Throughout the 12-year conflict, between 670 and 995 non-combatants were killed by British RAF bombers. The campaign was one of the few successful counter-insurgency operations undertaken by the Western powers. Still studied today, it provides many important lessons on how such campaigns should be conducted. 1 Squadron) and CAC Sabres of No. In the camps, the soldiers attended lectures on Marxism–Leninism, and produced political newsletters to be distributed to civilians. [42] British troops were often unable to tell the difference between enemy combatants and non-combatant civilians while conducting military operations through the jungles, due to the fact the guerrillas wore civilian clothing and had support from sympathetic civilian populations. Malaya's original military garrison consisted of six Gurkha, three British and two Malay battalions. Reinforcements were sent from August 1948 onwards. [25] Instead, platoons or sections carried out patrols and laid ambushes, based on intelligence from various sources, including informers, surrendered MNLA personnel, aerial reconnaissance and so on. Knife and belt used by communist forces in Malaya, 1955. "Another very viable weapon" was the 20 lb. For others, it was a time of great camaraderie. The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war between the Federation of Malaya—a protectorate of Britain until August 1957, and part of the Commonwealth of Nations thereafter —and the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the armed wing of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP). In the 1940s the British Army found itself stuck in the middle of a growing conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Originally, the plan was to bomb and shell the swamp day and night so that the terrorists would be driven out into ambushes; but the terrorists were well prepared to stay indefinitely. Field Marshall Slim In Malaya (1949) Field Marshal William Slim visiting Malaysia. Tunku Abdul Rahman, however, did not respond to the MCP's proposals. The remaining MRLA forces fled to the Thai border and further east. Pro-independence fighters of the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military wing of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) fought against the armed forces of the British military … New Zealand became more directly involved in the conflict in 1955; from May, RNZAF de Havilland Vampires and Venoms began to fly strike missions. After establishing a series of jungle bases the MNLA began conducting raiding British colonial police and military installations. One company began operations in the swamp, about 21 December 1954. Asia Around 4,000 members rejected these incentives and went underground. Many of the captured guerrillas changed sides. See more ideas about malayan emergency, emergency, military history. Support for the MNLA was mainly based on around 500,000 of the 3.12 million ethnic Chinesethen living in Malaya. Gurney's successor, Lieutenant General Gerald Templer, was instructed by the British government to push for immediate measures to give Chinese ethnic residents the right to vote. In 1948 the British replaced the Malayan Union with The Federation of Malaya which reduced Chinese influence and for many Chinese this appeared as a betrayal after their community had borne the brunt of fighting the Japanese occupation. Under these measures many trade unions, the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and other leftist parties were outlawed. The Malaysian Army was not formed until 1 March 1933, with the 1st Experimental Malay Company whose Commanding Officer was Major G M S Bruce of the Lincolnshire Regiment. Oct 16, 2019 - Explore Cealwulf's board "Malayan Emergency", followed by 274 people on Pinterest. Led by Chin Peng the remaining Malayan communists retreated to rural areas and formed the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), although their name has commonly been mistranslated as the Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) or the Malayan People's Liberation Army (MPLA). They later transformed into the Straits Settlements Volunteer Air Force (SSVAF) and the Malaya Volunteer Air Force (MVAF) formed in 1940 and dissolved in 1942 during the height of the … The MNLA launched their first guerrilla attacks in the Gua Musang district. A typical operation was "Nassau", carried out in the Kuala Langat swamp (excerpt from the Marine Corps School's The Guerrilla – and how to Fight Him): After several assassinations, a British battalion was assigned to the area. British planters and miners, who bore the brunt of the communist attacks, began to talk about government incompetence and being betrayed by Whitehall. The police were given the power to detain communists and those suspected of assisting them. The killing has been described as a major factor in causing the Malayan population to roundly reject the MNLA campaign, and also as leading to widespread fear due to the perception that "if even the High Commissioner was no longer safe, there was little hope of protection and safety for the man-in-the-street in Malaya. A photograph of a Royal Marine commando holding two insurgents' heads caused a public outcry in April 1952. [26], In addition to British and Malayan units and personnel, a range of Commonwealth forces were also involved, including troops from Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Kenya, Nyasaland, and Northern and Southern Rhodesia.[27]. [64], Like the USA later did in Vietnam, British troops sometimes set fire to villages whose inhabitants were accused of supporting the insurgents, detaining thousands of suspected collaborators, and to deny the insurgents cover. Secretary of State Dean Rusk advised President John F. Kennedy that the precedent of using herbicide in warfare had been established by the British through their use of aircraft to spray herbicide and thus destroy enemy crops and thin the thick jungle of northern Malaya. nose-fused bomb was employed from August 1948 and had a mean area of effectiveness of 15,000 square feet. On 21 March, an ambush Party, after four fruitless days of patrolling or in... `` C '' Squadron of the public an intensive publicity campaign on an unprecedented scale was by... Rick Smith 's board `` Malayan Emergency '' on Pinterest ideas about Malayan Emergency '', page! One step nearer edited on 1 December 2020, at 19:17 forces increased when the village was searched forces up... Camps and hideouts were in the Malayan Emergency, Emergency included arrests deportations. Rhodesia and its legacy still has explosive global impact today Malaya ( now Malaysia ) medical care provided! 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