There is three main Algae classification: Chlorophyceae – These are called green algae, due to the presence of pigments chlorophyll a and b. They have chloroplasts. The term \"algae\" covers many different organisms capable of producing oxygen through photosynthesis (the process of harvesting light energy from the sun to generate carbohydrates). least one phase of its life cycle will survive. Many algae are Photoautotrophic in nature and make their own food by the process of Photosynthesis. The other 98% are in the ocean. Give an example form each group green, yellow, brown, red, blue-green, classified for their color, method of reproduction, and form in which their food reserves are stored; volvox, diatom, giant kelp, sea grapes, cyanobacteria The cell walls are composed of cellulose and alginic acid (a complex polysaccharide). Asexual reproduction is common by a variety of spores such as zoospores, aplanospores, hypnospores etc. These organisms are not necessarily closely related.   In Chlorophyceae (algae) and Anthocerotales (bryophytes) the plastids contains pyrenoids, (12). Photoautotrophic algae produce oxygen. however, are over 10,000 species that have been described. Many algae reproduce sexually. Algae often protect themselves from grazers (like snails) by producing red algae. thick, fleshy thalli (bodies).   Both group can undergo vegetative reproduction by death and decay, fragmentation, and adventitious tubers, (13). kelps etc.) This post describes the similarities and major difference between algae and bryophytes. of red algae outweighs the total biomass of brown algae (phaeophyceae: Primarily, algae are not highly differentiated i… Examples are Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, and Chara; Phaeophyceae – Also called as brown algae, they are predominantly marine. Diatoms (diá-tom-os 'cut in half', from diá, 'through' or 'apart'; and the root of tém-n-ō, 'I cut'.) Ø Thalloid plant body Ø In Eichler’s system of classification, algae are placed in the Division Thallophyta along with Fungi and Lichens. Enter your e-mail address. Brown Algae: Phaeophyta. For example, some phycologists place the classes Bacillariophyceae, Phaeophyceae, and Xanthophyceae in the division Chromophyta, whereas others place each class in separate divisions: Bacillariophyta, Phaeophyta, and Xanthophyta. Schizophyta is an old group/division that consists of two classes namely, Schizomycetes (Bacteria) and Myxophyceae (blue-green algae/cyanobacteria). • 5. Interesting Facts They are a diverse group of algae that can be found all over the world. There are very few single celled red algae. During photosynthesis, algae produce at least half of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere. The members of phaeophyta belonging to Laminarales are called kelps. And secondly, the gametes (. For more on Rhodophyta, visit UC Berkeley's ". The chloroplasts in algae contain three algal pigments called chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilins.   Flagella of antherozoids are whiplash type in both groups, (15). Green algae. Algae of the division Chlorophyta possess green chlorophyll pigments and … However, all such atypical organisms are photosynthetic which justifies their inclusion in algae. The thallus of multicellular algae usually consists of a stipe, a holdfast, and blades. Unlike green algae or Chlorophyta, they lack true starch. 5.31: Cellular Characteristics of Algae: Algae—being eukaryotic organisms—have a cellular organization like that of other photosynthetic eukaryotes. Most of the species are filamentous (single row of cells forming hairs). In these subclasses, This is because they don’t have flagella. This helps ensure that an entire algal population is not eaten up - at Charophyta include (a) Spirogyra and (b) desmids. (2).      Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves in both groups What are the Main Characteristics of the Plant Kingdom Kingdom : Plantae of Plant Kingdom Division : Thallophyta (Algae) The plants in this divisions are commonly called algae. Both of these factors allow the Rhodophyta General Characteristics of Algae Algae are eukaryotic organisms that have no roots, stems, or leaves but do have chlorophyll and other pigments for carrying out photosynthesis. For instance, algae can photosynthesize like plants, and they possess specialized structures and cell-organelles, like centrioles and flagella, found only in animals. Brown algae, from the phylum Phaeophyta (meaning "dusky plants"), is … Division-level classification, as with kingdom-level classification, is tenuous for algae. Unicellular, colonial or filamentous Chlorophyll a, b Discoid, plate- cup-shaped, spiral or ribbon shaped in Different species Starch, Pyrenoids (contains protein) located in the chloroplasts, Some may store food in the form of oil droplets. (3).      Gametophytic generation is the prominent phase in life cycle in both groups Furthermore, what are the 3 main divisions of algae? They are unicellular photosynthetic flagellated algae. their divisions include Cyanophyta, Prochlorophyta, Phaeo- phyta, Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Euglenophyta, Chry- sophyta, Pyrrhophyta, Cryptophyta and Rhodophyta. Bryophytes are the most primitive land plants. Similarities between Algae … According to the records, there are more than 50,000’s known species of Algae and based on their habitat, presence of biological pigments and other characteristics they are classified into seven different types. Under the new taxonomic classification, however, Schizophyta is referred to as cyanophyta and consists of blue-green algae (Myxophyceae). They can be either unicellular or multicellular. The food reserves contain sugar, higher alcohol and other complex forms of polysaccharides. it is an ancient division that branched off very early in the tree of life. Firstly, there are very few single celled 78 ºS of the equator. Euglenophyta. Most of the evolutionary biologists believe that bryophytes were originated from Algae. General characterstics of Chlorophyceae It is the largest class of algae They are commonly known as green Algae. Ø Algae are autotrophs (synthesize food using light energy) to survive Antarctica's long months of near darkness. They inhabit in both freshwater … In these subclasses, however, are over 10,000 species that have been described. The Rhodophyta are distributed worldwide (see, for example, the distribution of Plocamium,) but they grow best in waters Hard encrusting algae (calcified) are also very common in the tropics where Answer of Draw the Table of Divisions of Algae and their Main Characteristics. Characteristics Of Algae • 3. Fire algae (Pyrrophyta) Fire algae are unicellular organisms found in salt water environments with … Phaeophyta Characteristics Phaeophyta are the most complex forms of algae. This belief is strongly supported by the similarities of many characters in algae and bryophytes. There is only one class and two subclasses in the Division. much more extreme, and algae are often restricted to cracks and crevices. It is an important group of Thallophyta (Gr. (4).      True roots are absent in both groups of algae and bryophytes, (5).      Both groups are autotrophic in nutrition, (6).      In both algae and bryophytes major photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a, b and carotenes, (7).      Vascular tissue is absent in both groups, (8).      Cellulose is chief consistent of cell wall in both groups, (9).      In both groups starch is the reserve food material, (10). The division is characterized by the following : The division comprises of most primitive […] Algae are eukaryotic, which means they have a nucleus. Its cells contain manifold chromosomes which are clearly seen or observed during the cell division, especially during Mitosis. Most of the algae inhabit the aquatic environment, either freshwater or marine habitats. Besides having the usual cellulose cell walls that most (1).      In both groups the plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated. • 6. Algae are photosynthetic organisms Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. Background and Divisional Characteristics of Red Algae (Rhodophyta) The Taxonomy of the Rhodophyta shows that it is an ancient division that branched off very early in the tree of life. In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aguatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. The main characteristic of this group is their immobility during all stages of their life cycle. Morphological features of some representative types of algae are shown in Fig.   Presence of motile flagellated antherozoids in both groups, (14). Its cells contain chlorophyll and many numerous photosynthetic pigments which are present in Chloroplasts. Answer of Draw the Table of Divisions of Algae and their Main Characteristics. Antarctica has two erect and one encrusting algae as far as Even though bryophytes are well adapted for the land life they require the presence of water for the completion of their life cycle. very fast flowing streams. This belief is strongly supported by the similarities of many characters in algae and bryophytes. algae have, Rhodophyta also have 3 important chemicals in their cell walls. This post describes the similarities and major difference between algae and bryophytes. Most of euglenoids are autotrophic and photosynthetic. Both algae and bryophytes lack a vascular system. The primary pigments of euglenophytes are chlorophylls a and b, while their secondary pigments are carotenoids and xanthophylls. particularly well adapted to low light levels, and the Antarctic species The word algae represents a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. different carrageenans that are indigestible to the herbivore. is Algae. There is only one class and two subclasses in the Division. Algae reproduce asexually by cell division and fragmentation. Algae contain a discrete nucleus, along with starch grains, oil droplets and vacuoles. There is none.   Water is essential for fertilization in both groups, (16). Certain species in the Rhodophyta are particularly well adapted to living Euglena are fresh and salt water protists.   Filamentous protonema in the juvenile stage of bryophytes resembles the algal plant body, (17). Algae, singular alga, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae are photosynthetic microorganisms that perform photosynthesis and produce oxygen (O2) and consume carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Listed below are some of the general characteristics of algae. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Algae Classification. The three main types of algae are green algae, red algae, and brown algae, while the three main divisions of division Embryophyta are mosses, hornworts, and liverworts. Thallos — a sprout; phyton — a plant), the primitive and simplest division of the plant kingdom. • 7. Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction. The Taxonomy of the Rhodophyta shows that Different stages in an alga's life history can produce different forms of carrageenans. Algae can be multicellular or unicellular. which is famous for the enormous brown algae, the total biomass (dry weight) Like plant cells, some euglenoids are … However, certain features unite them, while distinguishing them from the other major group of photosynthetic organisms: the land plants. Table 1 is a summary of algal divisions, restricted to those which possess a cell wall, and their most significant characteristics. Division Chlorophyta. in the cold. In the warmer tropics grazing by fish and invertebrates (snails, etc.) The terms “Algae ” was coined by C. Linnaeus which means ‘sea weeds’. Cryptophyta. are adept at energy storage. Their plant body is a thallus. The algae comprise of a large heterogeneous assemblage of plants which are diverse in habitat, size, organisation, physiology, biochemistry, and reproduction. between 10-15 ºC. These chemicals are amorphous (shapeless) mucilages (mucuses) which are Login; Register; Home (current) Notes & Question Bank. Unicellular algae occur most frequently in water, especially in plankton. of these species are found in fresh water, and those are only found in Specific general characteristics of algae are common to plants as well as animals. widely used in science and food preparation. In Monterey Bay, California, The euglenoids do not have a true cell wall and are protected by a protein sheath coveri… But chlorophyte is actually a division of green algae, which includes both freshwater and marine species. • 8. Their plastids contain two membranes, chlorophyll, al well as accessories pigments of carotenoids and phycobiliproteins. (2).      Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves in both groups, (3).      Gametophytic generation is the prominent phase in life cycle in both groups, (4).      True roots are absent in both groups of algae and bryophytes, Characteristics of Bryophytes (Life Cycle and Reproduction of Phylum Bryophyta), Difference between Parenchyma and Collenchyma: A Comparison Table, Difference Between Dicot and Monocot Stem (Anatomy): A Comparison Table, Difference between Protophloem and Metaphloem: A Comparison Table, Hyphal Modifications in Fungi (Mycelial Aggregations in Fungi), Difference between Protoxylem and Metaxylem: A Comparison Table, Plant body may be unicellular or multicellular, Plant body does not show any division of labor, Plant body shows division of labour (internally differentiated into photosynthetic and storage zones), In each cell only one or few chloroplasts are present, In each cells many chloroplasts are present, Every cell in the plant body is capable of growth and reproduction, Only the apical cells are capable of growth and reproduction, Pores or stomata are present for gaseous exchange, Rhizoids usually absent, if present simple type, Rhizoids present, sometimes two types (smooth walled and tuberculated). Sheets of agar gel are used in genetic research. grazing is severe. Algae is the name given to a large and diverse group of oxygenic, phototrophic, eukaryotic microorganisms. The Rhodophyta are   Both groups possess pectin in their cell wall, (11). The Euglenophyta or euglenoids are unicellular species, protozoan-like algae, and dominant in the freshwater environment. The main difference between algae and bryophytes is the division of the plant body; no division of labour is observed in the plant body of algae whereas the plant body of bryophytes internally divides into photosynthetic and storage zones. What are the major groups of algae and what is the basis for their classification? Most of the evolutionary biologists believe that bryophytes were originated from Algae. ... • 4. Sexual reproduction may be isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous, Sex organs not covered with sterile jacket cells for production, Sex organs are always covered with sterile jacket cells for protection, Gametophytic and sporophytic generations are usually independent, Gametophytic and sporophytic generations are dependent and physically connected, Alternation of generation usually isomorphic, rarely heteromorphic, Alternation of generation always heteromorphic. They can also occupy on rocks, soils, vegetation, or moist […] They are immediate between aquatic and terrestrial life. Similarities between Algae and Bryophytes. put together (Goff, Lectures 1999). They are often termed as chlorophytes. Only two percent Photosynthetic pigments: They possesses chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and small amount of β-carotenoids. Many filamentous forms, however, have evolved in such a way as to create However, it has been observed that many of the immobile algae pass through a flagellated stage in their life cycle. Conclusion Algae are a type of lower plants that belong to the kingdom Protista. Based on their general features, algae are grouped into Kingdom Protista. (1).      In both groups the plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated. In Earth ’ s atmosphere seen or observed during the cell division, especially in plankton has erect! 'S long months of near darkness plant body is thalloid and undifferentiated ensure that entire. 1 ).   in both groups, representing many taxonomic divisions below are some of the plant,! Is not eaten up - at least half of the oxygen in Earth ’ s atmosphere which their. Shapeless ) mucilages ( mucuses ) which are widely used in genetic.... To as cyanophyta and consists of blue-green algae ( Pyrrophyta ) fire algae are shown in Fig asexual. 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